The Lies of War: Afghanistan

UPDATE: I originally claimed lead photo contained Bin Laden. I have been informed I am incorrect. I apologize. : ) Thank you for informing me! 

by Amber Seree Allen

WTF is the United States of America doing in Afghanistan?

The Occupation of Kabul: 1839-?

The Lies of War: Afghanistan

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Brzezinski and ? **I originally believed this to be Bin Laden, looking for correct name.

Most people will probably tell you that the U.S. got involved in Afghanistan maybe kinda around the 80s to combat the Soviet Union. And that we are still there to fight (insert boogeyman here).

What most people probably wont mention is that the U.S. “essentially” created Taliban and Al Qaeda by funding  {arming and aiding and training} the Mujahideen via Pakistan in (note link to CIA . gov / library >>>)  Operation Cyclone. For the Democratas’ in the house, even esteemed MADam Clinton admits we funded {and armed and trained} them.

“The people we are fighting today, we funded…” -Hillary Clinton

They will probably leave out how many women used to attended university in Kabul. Or that opium was never really a big crop in Afghanistan, at least not originally.

What even less people will tell you is that according to Zbigniew Kazimierz “Zbig” Brzezinski; Carter’s National Security Adviser, among other things; the U.S. under Carter began funding the Mujahadin *before* soviet invasion.

Al Qaeda was used as the major Boogeyman to justify both recent unconstitutional U.S. wars in Afghanistan and also Iraq, and further wars in the Middle East region, but did/does “Al Qaeda” even exist? According to Corbett Report, it doesn’t. (See the documentary series on YouTube here.)

There is also the general feeling, like the one expressed by Karen Kwiatkowski, former Pentagon employee, that the U.S. is in Afghanistan as strategic position to invade Iran.

And are we in Afghanistan for U.S. Foreign Policy? Or perhaps for Israeli Foreign Policy? Or for some other reasons? Like gold, oil, minerals and poppies?

But to truly understand the conflict happening in the region we should also have a grasp on the history of conflict in the region, which predates even the U.S. funding of Mujahideen.

Land of the Poppies?

Most people in the west also probably equate Afghanistan with opium, but perhaps that is a much more modern equivalence than we realize.

“As to the recent past, a 2003 UNODC report says “opium poppy was not really a ‘traditional crop’ in Afghanistan” and that “unlike many other countries in the region, Afghanistan did not have much of an ‘opium culture’” in the past. The 1949 UNODC report quoted earlier said that, according to the then most recent data sent by the Afghan government (in 1937), “in 1932 the area of cultivation was 3,846 hectares. [This would have been 1.7 per cent of the 2014 peak.]” (Doris Buddenberg, Afghanistan Analysis Network) See more \/

There is a reason that Afghanistan has *come* to be associated with the poppy. But perhaps it has less to do with cultural history of Afghanistan and more with cultural history of it’s invaders, apparent monarchs, colonists, and sanctioned capitals of industry.

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So pretty. 

Now, we can allege the U.S. (and others?) capitalize on Opium Trade from within Afghanistan (at the expense of Afghani people as well the taxpayers in the countries who allied themselves with the U.S. and the U.S. taxpayers themselves and others in the region and those geopolitical regions which Afghanistan and the middle east impact….).

This not only fingers the Military Industrial Complex, the U.S. Military, and all the chain of U.S. Command, Big Pharma, “medical” professionals who are glorified heroine dealers, non-glorified heroine dealers, etc; but I think to really understand the conflict in the region we also have to talk about the East India Trading Company.

Both the history of the “Poppy Trade” and the history of conflict in Afghanistan are intricately tied to the East India Trading Companies & et al.

Colonization

This next sequence is ripped straight, and I mean, straight, from the mainstream bowels of Encyclopedia Britannica. Think of it as a government funded lesson. : D Emphasis added by this “author”. Just bare with me.

East India Trading Co./s

“The company was formed to share in the East Indian spice trade. That trade had been a monopoly of Spain and Portugal until the defeat of the Spanish Armada (1588) by England…. Until 1612 the company conducted separate voyages…until 1657, when a permanent joint stock was raised.

113706-004-55D378D9
East India House, LondonThe East India House in Leadenhall Street, London, drawing by Thomas Hosmer Shepherd, c. 1817.

“The company met with opposition from the Dutch and Portuguese. The Dutch virtually excluded company members from the East Indies after the Amboina Massacre in 1623 (an incident in which English, Japanese, and Portuguese traders were executed by Dutch authorities), but the company’s defeat of the Portuguese in India (1612) won them “trading concessions” from the Mughal Empire. The company settled down to a trade in cotton and silk piece goods, indigo, and saltpetre, with spices from South India. It extended its activities to the Persian Gulf, Southeast Asia, and East Asia.

“After mid-18th century the cotton-goods trade declined, while tea became an important import from China. Beginning in the early 19th century, the company financed the tea trade with illegal opium exports to China. Chinese opposition to that trade precipitated the first Opium War (1839–42), which resulted in a Chinese defeat and the expansion of British trading “privileges; a second conflict, often called the Arrow War (1856–60), brought increased trading “rights” for Europeans.

Opium Wars

Opium wars:” two armed conflicts in China in the mid-19th century between the forces of Western countries and of the Qing dynasty, which ruled China from 1644 to 1911/12. The first Opium War (1839–42) was fought between China and Britain, and the second Opium War (1856–60), also known as the Arrow War or the Anglo-French War in China, was fought by Britain and France against China. In each case the foreign powers were “victorious” and gained commercial privileges and “legal” and territorial concessions in China. The conflicts marked the start of the era of unequal treaties and other inroads on Qing sovereignty that helped weaken and ultimately topple the dynasty in favour of republican China in the early 20th century.”

Afghan Wars

Anglo-Afghan Wars, also called Afghan Wars, three conflicts (1839–42; 1878–80; 1919) in which Great Britain, from its base in India, sought to extend its control over neighbouring Afghanistan and to “oppose Russian influence there“.

afghanpoppyposter1
Anti-Opium poster from Afghanistan. The slogan of the top one (Kabul, Afghanistan, 1996) reads: “Save the sons of our beloved country from the pernicious jaws of drug addiction” in Dari and Pashto.

SUMMARY re: Afghanistan

The East India Co and et al, forced the opium trade, among other things, for their profit upon unwilling lands in tandem with Colonization.

First Anglo-Afghan War

As this pertains to Afghanistan and the Mainstream history narrative, the British in the Anglo-Afghan wars, with strategic advantage of subjugating India among others, would go on to oust Dōst Moḥammad, in 1839 entering Kandahār, and Crowning Shojāʿ as Shah, installing him in Kabul by the following July.

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Dōst Moḥammad Khan undated engraving.”

Afghanis revolted in 1840, possibly almost succeeded,  but Dōst Mohammad it is said, (By encyclopedia britannica lol) surrendered to British in Kabul the next day. Uprisings continued and in 1842 British withdrew from Kabul, only to attempt to occupy it once more some months later under new governor-general of India, only to lose again in 1843 when Dōst was reinstated on the throne.

Second Anglo-Afghan War

But that wasn’t all, there was a second Anglo-Afghan war:

“In November 1875 British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli appointed Lord Lytton governor-general of India. Lytton during his service there was concerned primarily with India’s relations with Afghanistan. At the time of his appointment, Russian influence was growing in Afghanistan, and Lytton had orders to counteract it or to secure a strong frontier by force.”

They launched the second Anglo-Afghan war November 21, 1878, with a British invasion, which resulted once again in British occupation of Kabul. In 1879 they recognized Yaʿqūb Khan as emir, and he allegedly agreed to a permanent British embassy in Kabul, “In addition, he agreed to conduct his foreign relations with other states in accordance ‘with the wishes and advice’ of the British government.”

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“Afghan ruler Yaʿqūb Khan and Sir Louis Cavagnari, the British negotiator, signing the Treaty of Gandamak, May 26, 1879.”

In 1879, British envoy Cavagnari and his escort were killed in Kabul. British forces invaded, and by October occupied Kabul. Yaʿqūb abdicated the throne, and in July 1880 ʿAbd al-Raḥmān became emir. During the reign of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, the boundaries of modern Afghanistan were drawn by the British and the Russians.

Third Anglo-Afghan War

But wait, there is more. There was a THIRD Anglo-Afghan war. Jesus Christ people. Get over it. Yet here we are!

“With the outbreak of World War I (1914–18), there was in Afghanistan widespread support of Ottoman Turkey against the British.

When Ḥabībullāh was assassinated on February 20, 1919, “by persons associated with the anti-British movement”, his son Amānullāh Khan took possession of the throne.

At that time Britain still exercised an important influence on Afghan affairs. In his coronation address Amānullāh declared total independence from Great Britain. This declaration launched the *inconclusive* Third Anglo-Afghan War in May 1919.

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“Amānullāh Khan of Afghanistan in Western attire. The king’s efforts to institute Western reforms and foreign customs contributed to his overthrow.”

Let me fill in the rest: Fighting, treaties, uneasy tension and accepting of the Bolsheviks up until Soviet Invasion in 1979.

This declaration launched the *inconclusive* Third Anglo-Afghan War

Russian Ninja Commie Spy Troll Satellites?

I’m sure if I don’t tell you how bad Russia is right now it automatically means I am a stealthy Russian Ninja KGB Hacker Spy Troll Alien Savage with teleportic abilities and droves of electronic resources from the kremlin at my disposal.

Screenshot (236)
OMG 😱

Here, duckduckgo.com, there is plenty about it out there already.

U.S. Involvement in Afghanistan Mujahideen – ?

Why is U.S. involved in Afghanistan at all? We are told today that we have to be in Afghanistan to fight the Taliban and Al Qaeda in response to 9/11. (Sound familiar yet?) Yet we funded {and created!} both!

The first time the U.S. entered Afghanistan they said it was to protect from the Russians…

Operation Cyclone

“We didn’t push the Russians to intervene, but we knowingly increased the probability that they would.” — Zbig Brzezinski

Operation Cyclone was the code name for the United States (See Aye Eh! >>>) Central Intelligence Agency program to arm and finance the Afghan mujahideen prior to and during the Soviet war in Afghanistan, 1979 to 1989. The program leaned heavily towards supporting militant Islamic groups that were favored by neighboring Pakistan…”

CIA

According to Former CIA case officer John R. Stockwell, recorded in 1989, “The Afghani operation is the biggest one in the history of the CIA….Biggest in every sense, including the fact the largest heroine smuggling ring left behind…and they managed to keep it from being a focal point of debate.” And while Stockwell claims in this recording they haven’t published the figures on how much they spent on Operation Cyclone but it was in the “billions”.

CARTER

In a 1998 interview, Brzezinski, peeking into the pic below, told the French Press, translated from the French by Bill Blum, printed here by CounterPunch, that not only did the U.S. decide to fund Mujahideen in July, 79, before Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan in Dec, 79; that they knowingly increased chances of Russia invading, and basically wanted to give them their “Vietnam.” Peachy.

screenshot-2321.png

“What is most important to the history of the world? The Taliban or the collapse of the Soviet empire? Some stirred-up Moslems or the liberation of Central Europe and the end of the cold war? ” — Brzezinski, 1998

U.S. Funding Mujahideen had lasting consequences on Afghanistan as well as the world. As John Pilger states, below, this resulted in the creation “Taliban, Al Qaeda.”

“The official story is that America backed these fundamentalists in response to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979. But thats not true. It was six months before the Soviet invasion, in July of that year, that President Jimmy Carter authorized 500 million dollars to help set up the Mujahideen…. The American people were completely unaware that their government, together with British Secret Service, MI6, had begun training and funding Islamic Extremists, including Osama Bin Laden.” –John Pilger

REAGAN

Reagan continued with the “Reagan Doctrine” which according to U.S. DOJ archive “was used to characterize the Reagan administration’s (1981-1988) policy of supporting anti-Communist insurgents wherever they might be…”

According to Michael S. Grogan, Major, United States Marine Corps, from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL, DEPARTMENT OF NATIONAL SECURITY AFFAIRS in Monterey, California, U.S. concern of Afghanistan actually stretches “back to the administration of Eisenhower,” but that “President Reagan and his national security team had plenty of diversionary crises to attend to besides the situation in Afghanistan; however, it was Afghanistan that resonated most clearly the central themes of the Reagan Doctrine.” Others included  “the Iran-Iraq War, 1980-S8; the US invasion and liberation of Grenada, 1983 12 ; US aid to freedom fighters in Nicaragua, Angola, Cambodia, and — to a lesser extent — Mozambique: as well as numerous state- sponsored terrorist incidents through the 1980s.”

BUSH Sr.

I’ll just leave this here for you to ponder:

Director of CIA from 1976 to 1977, before that served as WWII naval aviator in the Pacific, Member of Congress, Ambassador to the UN, Chief of the US Liason Office with the People’s Republic of China, also in Private Business, went on to be Vice President of the U.S. to Reagan 1981-1989 , and President of the U.S. from 1989 – 1993.

Was Bush Sr. involved in the CIA prior to his directorship?

Is it possible that Bush Sr. preferred covert action versus open war?

independent-1993 (1)-1
Bin Laden in the Independent circa 1993

CLINTON

Pilger points out in video above that “soon after the Taliban came to power in 1996 the administration of Bill Clinton backed a secret plan for a pipeline through Afghanistan from central Asia which has vast reserves of oil and gas. The Taliban were offered a generous cut in the deal, and secretly invited to Washington and Texas.” But there was also documented military action in Afghanistan during Clinton’s admin.

Operation Infinite Reach

Operation Infinite Reach is codename for US bombings of Afghanistan and Sudan in 1998. Of course we are told this was in retaliation of al-Qaeda. And according to this 1998 CRS report for Congress,  this was first time U.S. “launched and acknowledged a preemptive strike against a terrorist organization or network.”

{And this whole time I was blaming Junior for preepmtive strike.}

BUSH Jr.

Besides another illegal and failed war in Iraq, Bush administration launched Operation Enduring Freedom in 2001. And we were of course told over and over again it was because of 9/11, and the boogeyman of the Taliban and al Qaeda.

Operation Enduring Freedom

“In response to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks that killed nearly 3,000 people, Operation Enduring Freedom officially began October 7, 2001, with American and British bombing strikes against al-Qaeda and Taliban forces in Afghanistan.” -Navy.Mil

Screen-Shot-2017-11-09-at-12.06.36-AM
The US could finally be charged with war crimes in Afghanistan.

CASUALTIES

“Reporting on casualties of Afghans did not begin until 2007”

Casualties are expressly hard to calculate in war. Not only because aggressors usually lie to make themselves look better, but documentation is just hard in general when you’re pushing buttons and sending inaccurate missiles many miles and when you conduct your warfare in the way where there is no accountability. {Is any Invasion ever accountable?}

Estimates on civilian casualties vary, but both Military and Civilian casualties are high. Especially civilian deaths. Death tolls in Operation Enduring Freedom also include people who have died outside of Afghanistan, including places like Guantanamo Bay, Pakistan, Kenya and Yemen. { ???????}

In early 2002, Carl Conneta writes,

“Despite the adulation of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) as a “finely-tuned” or “bulls-eye” war, the campaign failed to set a new standard for precision in one important respect: the rate of civilians killed per bomb dropped. In fact, this rate was far higher in the Afghanistan conflict — perhaps four times higher — than in the 1999 Balkans war. In absolute terms, too, the civilian death toll in Afghanistan surpassed that incurred by the 1999 NATO bombing campaign over Kosovo and Serbia; indeed, it may have been twice as high.”

{In a companion report, it can be noted, that in 2002 CIA was still involved in Afghanistan, as an agent was killed in the field.}

According to this 2012 CRS report, “Reporting on casualties of Afghans did not begin until 2007” but that estimated 12,996 Afghani civilians at least have died since they began reporting in 2007 and at least 14,370 who have been injured.

US reports that 2,350 U.S. casualties have resulted from Operation Enduring Freedom specifically, and TWENTY THOUSAND wounded.

TROOPS

How many Troops have been deployed to Afghanistan in Operation Enduring Freedom? That is actually kind of hard to pin point. In 2009 CRS (Congressional Research Service) reported that Boots on the Ground in Afghanistan may increase to 50,700 in FY2009 with a further increase to 63,500 the following year once all new units are in place.

And we can argue that the deployment of US troops into Iraq & Afghanistan since 2001 now exceeds 2,000,000.

Coalition Forces

There is also Coalition Forces to consider.

According to Gen. Franks in Foreign Press Briefing in 2002, in “his area” we, the US, had

“more than 60 nations involved in one way or another in Operation Enduring Freedom. Some provide forces. Some provide resources. Some provide basing, staging and overflight….more than 16,000 coalition troops from 20 nations are involved inside my area of responsibility, with more than 6,600 of those troops actually employed inside Afghanistan. Additionally, 47 ships from 10 nations and 89 aircraft from a variety of coalition states are operating in the Central region, performing Enduring Freedom duties. As I speak today, 31 nations have liaison elements at my headquarters down in Tampa, Florida. And perhaps most interesting, this coalition has continued to build since we started combat operations on October 7th of last year.”

Coalition forces, according to Global Security, in Operation Enduring Freedom included:

“UK, Turkey, Canada and the Netherlands; with Japan, Germany, Italy and New Zealand pledging to deploy ships and troops if needed. Turkey and Australia had announced that special operations forces would be deployed. Italy announced in early November 2001 that ships and aircraft, and up to 3,000 military personnel, would be deployed. The 3,900 Germans planned on deployment would include some 100 special operations troops. Operation Veritas was the UK’s contribution to the US-led Operation Enduring Freedom, which began on 7 October 2001.”

For another Main$tream source on this subject check out Wikipedia’s Participants in Operation Enduring Freedom

WORLD WAR ANYONE?

Despite all this, billions spent, lives lost, troops deployed and we still FAIL in Afghanistan, as our predecessors before us. One has to start asking, is failing part of the game plan?

We might have to start asking why we can’t even defeat the “ragtag” “towel headed” “desert dwelling” militias we funded, armed, and trained who use our weapons….

Failure

Bush Jr, who praised Obama for his handling of the Afghan war in his memoir Decision Points: “In the fall of 2009, President Obama stood up to critics by deploying more troops” also admitted he had failed in Afghanistan, though he may not have put it that way.

a1
PressTV: Iraq, Afghan wars will cost US up to $6 trillion, Harvard study says…

OBAMA

Obama did no better. While it can’t be denied Obama inherited the war from W. Bush (who inherited it from, who inherited it from…?)….But yes, in December 2009, Obama ordered a troop surge, deploying 30,000 more troops into Afghanistan, and didn’t stop there, dropping over 26,000 bombs on 7 countries in 2016 alone.

This wasn’t much of a surprise for people paying attention, (I wasn’t one of them yet), for in a campaign speech on July 15, 2008, then-presidential candidate Obama expressed his intentions clearly:

“Our troops and our NATO allies are performing heroically in Afghanistan, but I have argued for years that we lack the resources to finish the job because of our commitment to Iraq. That’s what the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff said earlier this month. And that’s why, as President, I will make the fight against al Qaeda and the Taliban the top priority that it should be. This is a war that we have to win (Obama 2008).”

Obama nobly rejected the idea of “endless war”, yet seemingly had no problem perpetuating it all the same.

Obama Paraphrased: Don’t worry I got you, Hope! Change! I reject endless war! I’m going to defeat Taliban and al Qaeda real quick and get us out of there. Haha! Just kidding, here are more troops but they will be out of there by the end of my terms. HAHAHA just kidding, I’m leaving them there. Peace.

Yeah, Don’t feel too bad, it fooled me for a while too.

Operation Freedom’s Sentinel

Despite causing some apparent confusion in the name, Obama admin (carefully? quietly?) “transitioned” from Operation Enduing Freedom to “Operation Freedom’s Sentinel”.  As stated by DPAP, Defense Procurement and Acquisitions Policy, “Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) ended on December 31, 2014 and transitioned to Operation Freedom’s Sentinel (OFS) on January 1, 2015. OFS is a contingency operation in accordance with Title 10 USC 101(a)(13).”

Hmm. Contingency and Acquisitions stick out to me, but that is just me.

Operation Freedom’s Sentinel as of Jan. 12, 2018 accumulated a further 49 US casualties with 239 wounded in action. And how many civilian casualties?

TRUMP

So Trump inherits from inherits from inherits from and here we are. But where are we? Is Trump increasing troops in Afghanistan? WTF is up with the “Mother of all Bombs?” Where does Trump stand on Afghanistan, and where *did* he stand before being elected? What is happening in Afghanistan today? What resources are being deployed?

4373253500000578-4811382-Donald_Trump_was_deeply_skeptical_of_the_war_in_Afghanistan_in_t-a-2_1503411083910

In an unsurprising turn of events, President Trump reversed on his original stances, saying that withdrawal of US troops could spell vacuum for terrorists.

Not only has Trump Admin seemingly increased U.S. drone strikes over 400% overall, killed more people with Drone Strikes in 9 months than Obama did in 8 years, increased troops in Afghanistan, embolden ISIS, but also decided it would be a great idea apparently to drop the MOAB or “Mother of All Bombs” on Afghanistan.

More to the point, According to M$M Trump “praised” the Military when someone dropped the MOAB. {Did Trump ever acknowledge whether or not he authorized it?}

Kabul War Diary: Wikileaks & Afghanistan

They probably don’t want you to remember that Wikileaks released the Afghan War Diaries which showed us the “brutality and futility of the American war in Afghanistan.”

assange_afghan
Kabul War Diary

The War Logs contain 77,000 events covering six years of the U.S.-led war in Afghanistan. Read the Afghan War Logs here.

The Big Questions

Are you willing to ask them?

Does it even matter who is president of the United States?

Who benefits from endless war?

Why is the U.S. at war in Afghanistan? Is the U.S. occupying Afghanistan? Who benefits?

Why is Trump increasing U.S. troops? What did Trump accomplish by dropping the Mother of All Bombs? Why does the U.S. taxpayer need to fund a war in Afghanistan anyway?

How did we even get into this conflict? Is the war in Afghanistan justified by Constitutional Law or by International Law?

Do increased poppy production in Afghanistan & U.S. Opiate Epidemic have common root?

Why are we fighting who we created? If we have to fight them, why do we create them?

Is the U.S. Occupying Afghanistan to Invade Iran? Is the U.S. Occupying Afghanistan to invade Iran for Israel? Or, for whom?

How much Money are the U.S. tax payers getting taken for?

Most important question of all, How many lives have been lost? And for what?

And I can’t help but ask, did the Anglo-Afghan wars for supremacy over territory and Trade in Afghanistan (and surrounding region) ever really end?

 

Sources for Research \/

{take everything with a grain of salt and understand where your source comes from and what their intentions may be}

Zbig

From the Shadows, Robert M. Gates, Simon and Schuster, Dec 20, 2011History

https://books.google.com/books?id=M51ssIgLMl8C&printsec=frontcover&dq=from+the+shadows&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjhj7-iqtHYAhVR7GMKHYcWAjIQ6AEIKTAA#v=onepage&q=from%20the%20shadows&f=false

Counterpunch, How Jimmy Carter and I started the Mujahideen

https://www.counterpunch.org/1998/01/15/how-jimmy-carter-and-i-started-the-mujahideen/

Zbigniew Brezensinski interview, SCRIBD:

https://www.scribd.com/document/236263061/Zbigniew-Brzezinski-Interview-With-Le-Nouvel-Observateur?irgwc=1&content=10079&campaign=Skimbit%2C%20Ltd.&ad_group=40063X1035282Xc35f76b850bbe053dcc8d71fb60675fa&keyword=ft750noi&source=impactradius&medium=affiliate

The Real Story of Brzezinski, LewRockwell

https://www.lewrockwell.com/2017/05/no_author/real-story-zbigniew-brzezinski/

Kwiatowski

RT, karen kwiatkoski, Interview, ‘We are in Afghanistan to position ourselves against Iran’: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ddgm0ScSnx4

PressTV interview, Kwiatkoski: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zdfz7RgryMU

NATsummit, rethinking american israel relations : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e8OGleE15QU

Poppies

Ibn Sina (Avicenna) who lived from 980 to 1032 and worked in Bukhara and Hamadan stilled described opium as the “sun-dried juice of the Egyptian black poppy” (our emphasis) in his al-Qānūn fī ibb (Canon of Medicine), indicating that opium poppy was apparently not yet regularly cultivated in the region that nowadays includes Afghanistan. In China, opium cultivation for regular consumption started very late, probably only in the 15th century when it was transformed from a rare medicine into a luxury item. (6)

Another sign that the opium poppy came late to Afghanistan is that there does not seem to be an original Persian name for the plant. In Afghanistan, a Turkic word – koknar – is used; kok mean “green” and nar means “pomegranate” (anar in Persian), which may be an allusion to the poppy pod’s shape. Opium is locally called taryak, which comes from the old Greek word theriac (7); in the Middle East and south Asia, this word is used more widely than just for opium. It denotes a substance or mixture used to treat pain, wounds and snakebites, and could refer to any number of various of plant and mineral origin including opium. In Sa’adi’s 13th century Golestan, one of the most outstanding works of classical Persian literature, for example, there is the line:

Before theriac arrives from Persia, the one bitten by the snake has already died. (Buddenberg) https://www.afghanistan-analysts.org/on-the-cultural-history-of-opium-and-how-poppy-came-to-afghanistan/

Related Reports:

https://www.unodc.org/documents/afghanistan//Counter_Narcotics/The_Opium_Economy_in_Afghanistan_-_2003.pdf

https://www.sigar.mil/pdf/quarterlyreports/2014-04-30qr.pdf

East India Trading Company

Trout, Robert (1997). The Chinese Opium Wars: The Queen of England pushes dope.

U.S. Involvement in Afghanistan

Operation Cyclone

CIA . gov Library

https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/docs/DOC_0000408887.pdf

Operation Enduring Freedom

Bonosky, Phillip (2002). Washington Secret War against Afghanistan. New York, NewYork: International Publisher.

National Archives, Afghanistan

https://www.archives.gov/research/alic/reference/afghanistan.html

Dangerous Precedent: America’s Illegal War in Afghanistan, Ryan Williams, University Penn. Law

https://www.law.upenn.edu/journals/jil/articles/volume33/issue2/Williams33U.Pa.J.Int’lL.563(2011).pdf

Standford University, The United States and the Legacy of the Afghanistan Civil War by Katherine Harvey

http://web.stanford.edu/class/e297a/Afghanistan,%20the%20United%20States.htm

U.S. Department of State Archives 2001 – 2009

https://2001-2009.state.gov/g/drl/rls/c4802.htm

Military View (propaganda?) on Afghanistan and Iraq

https://www.army.mil/article/64302/AfghanistanandIraqinadecade/

https://www.sigar.mil/pdf/quarterlyreports/2014-04-30qr.pdf

VIDEOS

YouTube, Timeline, Afghanistan, John Rees: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yt14C_M7DYg

YouTube, PirateTV, The Untold History of Afghanistan, Tamim Ansary: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HyqM6euf8qk

{Pro Intervention} Eva Sajoo, Simon Fraser University, Brief History of Afghanistan: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sWTY2dousOY

YouTube, Liberty Report, Oliver Stone Talks About Putin Interviews: http://www.proxy-youtube.com/index.php?q=09ja2tytk5Wvrq9lsdrZ2t_L2JLJp6Rnrpnfx86p37DWmnyhm62av92yzQ

RT, karen kwiatkoski, Interview, ‘We are in Afghanistan to position ourselves against Iran’: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ddgm0ScSnx4

PressTV interview, Kwiatkoski: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zdfz7RgryMU

NATsummit, rethinking american israel relations : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e8OGleE15QU

YouTube Hillary Clinton, We fnded them: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dqn0bm4E9yw

YouTube, RT, CIA agent says al Qaeda doesn’t exist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HSQQlQ66bVg

ll https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ek7ZHenQnu4

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SEE OTHER>>>

Death-and-Ward-of-Death
“CNN’s Clarissa Ward, right, has illegally entered the SAR multiple times, embedding herself with takfiri” miriwood@syrianews.cc

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MORE ON THIS TOPIC>>>

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http://www.syrianews.cc/syria-illogic-american-war-policy/

http://publish.uwo.ca/~acopp2/historyofwar/coldwar/militaryconflicts/sovietafghanwar/timeline.html

https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/uks-work-in-afghanistan/the-uks-work-in-afghanistan-timeline

https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2014/05/27/fact-sheet-bringing-us-war-afghanistan-responsible-end

http://www.historycommons.org/timeline.jsp?complete_911_timeline__war_on_terrorism__outside_iraq=afghanistan&timeline=complete_911_timeline

https://www.chathamhouse.org/sites/default/static/afghanistan/index.html

http://www.e-ir.info/2013/11/06/was-the-nato-invasion-of-afghanistan-legal/

http://www.alternet.org/story/93473/afghanistan%3A_the_other_illegal_war

http://www-pub.naz.edu/~aamghar6/History%20of%20the%20Taliban.htm

https://2009-2017.state.gov/j/drl/p/previouscalls/224939.htm

http://ndupress.ndu.edu/Portals/68/Documents/Books/understanding-war-in-afghan.pdf

https://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2017/05/29/zbig-m29.html

http://www.kersplebedeb.com/mystuff/s11/brzezinski.html

https://archives.fbi.gov/archives/news/testimony/al-qaeda-international

https://www.rt.com/news/392022-putin-stone-us-alqaeda-chechnya/

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